The seminar will
center around the following focus sessions:
- Conformal particle
for a hospital-based facility
- Protocols for
of particle beams in biology and medicine
- Other topics
will also be presented by oral or poster sessions
Slide projectors and overhead projectors will be available for the
oral presentations. Each poster presentation will be about 0.9 m
(~3 ft)wide x 1.5m (~5 ft) high.
Abstracts for PTCOG XXVII
invited and strongly encouraged to submit a contribution paper,
which will be published (after a due referee process) as a special
issue of the journal of the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology
and Oncology. The submitted papers are due at the time
of registration at PTCOG XXVII. The abstracts of all submitted
papers will be published in the January 1998 issue of Particles.
Workshop on Heavy Charged Particles in Biology and Medicine
Lago Maggiore, Italy
29 - October 1 1997
The workshop will
be organized by ISE of Baveno, Lago Maggiore, on September 29 -
October 1 1997.
It will be dedicated
to the presentation and discussion of the new results of experiments
and theory in particle radiation biology. The main topic will be
the application of charged-particle beams like protons and heavy
ions to tumor therapy. In addition, biological, biochemical and
physical problems related to radiobiology using beams of heavy charged
particles will be discussed.
For further information,
Roberto Cirio Gerhard
Kraft Enzo Sacco
INFN TO Biophysics
GSI IEO sez. TERA MI
Via Giuira 1 Planck
Str. 1 via Ripamonti 435
I - 10125 Torino
D - 64291 Darmstadt 20141 Milano
Italy Germany Italy
fax; +39 11 6699579
fax: +49 6150 712106 fax: +39 2 57489208
ON MEDICAL PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
France, September 14 - 19 1997
From 14 - 19 September
1997, the WORLD CONGRESS ON MEDICAL PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
will take place in Nice on the French Riviera. After Kyoto (1991)
and Rio (1994), it will provide an unique opportunity for scientific
exchanges and discussions on various topics of interest for all
those involved in "Particle therapy".
Co-chair for the
about the meeting: "protons, neutrons & heavy ions in radiotherapy"
NICE' 97 - SEE
48, rue de la Procession
Centre de Protontherapie d'Orsay, BP. 65
F75724 PARIS CEDEX
15, FRANCE 91402 ORSAY CEDEX, FRANCE
Phone: + 33 1 44
49 60 60 Phone: + 33 1 69 29 87 00
Fax: + 33 1 44
49 60 44 Fax: + 33 1 69 07 55 00
Meeting of the European Hadron Therapy Group and the
Heavy-Particle Dosimetry Group combined with the
Hadrons - A Challenge
for High Precision Radiotherapy
Austria, October 8 - 11 1997
of the base of the skull; Prostate cancer; Hadrons vrs. conformal
radiotherapy and radiosurgery; Treatment planning for proton and
light ion-therapy; Tumor oxygenation and perfusion; Accelerators,
beamlines and dose delivery; Gantries for light ions; Active scanning
vrs. passive spreading; Social economical aspects of national cancer
For further information,
K. Poljanc, Med-AUSTRON,
A-2700 Wr. Neustadt, Austria.
fax: +43 2622 26326 359
The following reports
were received by July 1997.
News from PSI,
The patient numbers
for the 70 MeV proton facility for ocular tumors at PSI at the end
of May 1997 are:-
56 choroidal hemangiomas
54 melanomas of
30 age related
7 melanomas of
At the end of May
1997, we have treated a total number of 2324 ocular tumors: Emmanuel
Egger, Division of Radiation Medicine, Paul Scherrer Institute,
Villigen, CH-5232, Switzerland.
Ion Beam Interactions
A Web site is now
available which contains descriptions, manuals, software and installation
instructions for various topics in Ion Beam Interactions with Matter.
The site is:
(Note: all letters
must be lower-case)
This site covers
the following subjects:
: The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter
This section contains all the software and manuals of the SRIM
program which is widely used for ion stopping powers, ranges and
calculations of damage in layered structures.
- IBA :
Ion Beam Analysis
This section covers a program to analyze experimental data from
Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD).
It covers both ion scattering and target atom recoils for any
ion, at any energy, in any layered target. Extensive examples
are shown on the Web site illustrating its use.
- SER :
Soft Error Rate
This section covers the affects of cosmic rays on terrestrial
electronics, and the methods of determining the rate of induced
fails. It links to a published article which reviews 15 years
of industrial research which untangled the various components
of the problem and created a formalism to predict the SER of electronic
This Web site is
currently being constructed, and the author would appreciate comments
from any viewers in order to make it useful and clear. If the download
time is too long for any software or manuals, please send a note
to the author with a postal address for hardcopy. James Ziegler,
IBM - Research, 28-0, Yorktown, NY 10598.
News from Bratislava,
A project has been
approved by the Slovak Government to build a cyclotron at the Cyclotron
Laboratory of the Slovak Institute of Metrology, Bratislava. It
is expected that the cyclotron will be built and delivered by the
Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) Dubna, Russia, and will
have 75 MeV protons and a few MeV/n ions. It is expected that 85%
of the beam time will be used for medical applications such as the
production of PET isotopes, proton therapy of the eye, and boron-neutron
capture therapy. The rest of the beam time will be used for materials
research, physics and educational programmes. The scheduled start
date is 2000. Marius Palovic, GSI Darmstadt. Planckstrasse 1,
D-64291 Darmstadt, Germany.
News from the
National Accelerator Centre, Faure, South Africa and the
Versneller Instituut, Groningen, The Netherlands:
FOR SPOT-SCANNING COLLABORATIVE GROUP
NAC and KVI are
presently interested in developing spot scanning systems for proton
therapy. Expertise concerning scanned charged particle beams is
already available from Berkeley, PSI, Chiba, GSI and Uppsala. Presumably
there may be other centres as well as commercial companies which
may be interested in spot scanning. It is clear that large laboratories
such as NAC and KVI have the necessary expertise and infrastructure
to develop spot-scanning systems. However, such systems are complex,
costly and demanding in terms of equipment, manpower and time. Although
there will be certain accelerator-specified problems many of the
components of spot scanning systems are common.
By pooling resources
it should be possible to reduce development time and costs, which
will be to the long-term benefit of the particle therapy community.
We are proposing to establish a working group to jointly develop
and test components of spot scanning systems. Although parts of
such systems are specific to each centre we would like to consider
all aspects related to scanning. These include scanning magnets,
power supplies, control philosophy, position monitors, dosimetry,
treatment planning and quality assurance. Hopefully people from
those centres who have already developed scanning systems will also
be interested in participating since we can learn from their experiences.
Those who would consider joining such a group please send your names
(and any suggestions) to one of the undersigned before 30 September
1997. Once we have determined the extent of interest in the proposal
we will make suggestions regarding the infrastructure and operation
of the group. Dan Jones, National Accelerator Centre, P O Box
72, Faure, 7131 SOUTH AFRICA.
Fax: +27-21-843-3382; e-mail: email@example.com.
Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen,
THE NETHERLANDS. Tel: +31-50-363-3600; Fax: +31-50-363-4003; e-mail:
News from Indiana
University, Indiana, USA:
treatments are scheduled to resume this fall at the Indiana University
Cyclotron Facility. A fixed horizontal beam line has been reconfigured
for eye treatments. The initial treatments will be a clinical trial
on choroidal neovascular membrane in age-related macular degeneration.
This study is led by Thomas A. Ciulla, M.D. (IU Department of Ophthalmology).
Others participating in this study include Newell Pugh, M.D. (Department
of Radiation Oncology, IU-Methodist Hospital) as well as several
faculty from the IU School of Optometry.
In the longer term,
IU is trying to raise $15M to convert existing beam lines to a dedicated
radiation therapy center. This facility would be operated as a regional
center (the Midwest Proton Radiation Institute), involving personnel
from medical facilities in Indiana and neighboring states. IU recently
advertised a new position for the medical director of this planned
center. Chuck Bloch, Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, 2401
Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408-0768.
News of Heavy-ion
Therapy at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany:
There is a German
saying: The devil hides in the details.
After having completed
the set up of the medical treatment area and control and safety
system, the period of systematic and long-term testing started this
spring. For the intensity-controlled rasterscan system the energy
range of interest between 80 MeV/u and 430 MeV/u is divided into
255 energy steps, from which approximately 30 are used for an individual
treatment. These energies can be delivered in 7 steps of different
foci between 4 and 10 mm and 15 intensity steps between 2 x 106
to 2 x 108 particles per second. This switching of parameters
from pulse to pulse i.e. within 5 sec. has been put into routine
operation. The time sharing between physics experiments and therapy,
where therapy interrupts these physics experiments and switches
to the carbon beam for the irradiation, went smoothly. Switching
times of 10 to 20 sec. could be achieved, including some preparatory
carbon cycles of the synchrotron, before the beam was delivered
to the medical area.
The beam monitoring
system consisting of two multi-wire proportional counters and three
parallel plate ionisation chambers are now routinely used in order
to sample the center of gravity of the beam spot at a rate of 6
kHz and the intensity at 80 kHz. The spatial stability as well as
the intensity fluctuation of the delivered beam spot are acceptable
for the planned application. However, the spatial stability in a
100 µsec interval differs from the average over longer times that
are relevant for irradiation. Therefore, greater deviations in the
microstability can be allowed compared to the macrostability.
has been used in order to verify treatment planning in various phantoms
including an Alderson phantom and produces outstanding results.
The measurements for the governmental approval have been completed
in the last beam times. The minutes of these tests will be submitted
to the reviewers and we hope to obtain the approval before the end
of the year. Gerhard Kraft, GSI mbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291
A Progress Report
for the Proton Treatment Facility at NCC, Kashiwa, Japan:
of PTCOG XXVI poster presentation)
The project of
proton treatment facility at the National Cancer Center Hospital
East (NCC, Kashiwa), JAPAN, is proceeding on schedule. The prime
contractor of the building was Tokyu Construction Co.. Building
construction started in May, 1996, and completed at the end of March,
1997. The prime contractor of the equipment is Sumitomo Heavy Industries
Ltd.. Equipment manufacturing has proceeded very well, and the most
of them has already been installed into the building. This facility
is primarily medically dedicated. Therefore, the building is connected
with the hospital building through passageway.
235 MeV isochronous
cyclotron, which is the same as that of NPTC was installed. Energy
selection system (ESS) reduces the 235 MeV beam extracted from the
accelerator to 190, 150 and 110 MeV. There are two isocentrically
rotating gantry treatment rooms. Manufactured parts of a gantry
are assembled and a test run was performed at the works. Accuracy
of isocenter (+/-1 mm), accuracy of stop angle(+/-0.5 degree), rotational
speed(1 rpm), etc. were confirmed. Assembled gantries were decomposed
at the works, and re-assembled at the hospital. Caterpillar-driven
relatively rotational floor (caterpillar tread), which enables us
to access to a patient at arbitrary gantry angle, was originally
developed. Patient enclosure of the gantry, part of fixed horizontal
beam delivery system, patient positioning system, CT & simulator,
MRI, bolus and collimator fabrication machines were already installed
into the building.
and adjustment of each equipment is now on going. For the gantries,
test run is being carried out. The software for control, safety,
network and treatment planning are now under development. We are
expecting to start, testing the extracted beam in the autumn of
1997, and treating patients in the latter half of 1998.
In Japan, incidence
of eye melanoma, chordoma and skull base sarcoma is quite low. In
contrast, that of lung cancer and liver cancer is increasing. For
liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), encouraging results by
proton therapy are reported from Proton Medical Research Center
(PMRC) of Tsukuba, Japan. For lung cancer, we are conducting a trial
of mass-screening to find out early lung cancer patients using helical
scanning CT. Its' preliminary results revealed that a lot of candidates
for proton therapy were found, and some part of them had no lymph
node metastasis by operation. One of the distinguished characteristics
of our hospital is quite large number of head and neck cancer patients
is being treated. Therefore, we are planning to do, for a start,
dose escalating phase I/II clinical trial for cancer of the liver,
lung and head & neck.
Fig. 1 cyclotron
and part of beam transport line.
Fig. 2 Gantry treatment
T. Ogino, S.
Murayama, N. Moriyama, H. Ikeda, S. Yoshida and S. Ebihara, National
Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan.
"People and Particles" by Cornelius and Ida Tobias
Cornelius A. Tobias
and his wife Ida have published a very interesting book chronicling
from the early days of the Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron to the heavy
ion research at the Bevalac. It is not a technical book, but is
written as if the historic events unfold. Tobias says that he wrote
the book to explain to his granddaughter what he did.
Tobias, who retired
after forty years as professor of biophysics at University of California
Berkeley and the heavy ion research group leader at the Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is a pioneer in the physical
studies of the biological effects of ionizing radiation, including
those of cosmic rays. He is past president of the Radiation Research
Society and was a member of the founding council of the Biophysics
The book describes
the Lawrence Brothers and their laboratories (the Crocker and Donner
Laboratories and LBNL), which were principally responsible for the
advent of radioactive tracers in study of living organisms. Using
the natural radioisotopes George Hevesy originally discovered the
radioactive tracer method, but the detailed biological applications
of tracers had to wait the discovery of vast array of radio-isotopes
at Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron. In 1934 his brother John Lawrence
compared for the first time the biological effectiveness of neutron
rays to those of x rays and began therapeutic investigations including
successful treatment of polycythemia vera. Soon an avalanche of
biological studies was under way at Berkeley. Initially, radioactive
inert gases as well as radio-sodium and radio-phosphorus were used
in biological research, and studies of radio-iodine, radio-iron,
and radio-strontium were added. The Rockefeller Foundation made
it possible to build the first medical cyclotron.
donated funds for the Donner Laboratory, dedicated to the applications
of physical sciences to biology and medicine. The Donner Laboratory,
with help from Hardin Jones, became engaged in research on decompression
sickness during WWII; and early staff member, Joseph Hamilton, was
working on the biological effects of fissionable elements, as well
as doing research on uranium and plutonium. After the war, the Laboratory
became a training center for the new radiation sciences.
In the early postwar
years Donner Laboratory made basic contributions to hemodynamics.
In 1947 a dose of short-lived radioactive carbon was applied to
human being for the first time. Hal Anger built the first gamma-ray
camera that could visualize the distribution of gamma-ray emitting
isotopes in the body. Another instrument of the day was the "Monster"
capable of measuring the various rate of uptake of isotopes.
In addition to
applying fast neutrons to cancer therapy by Robert Stone, Bob Wilson
proposed the use of high-energy protons and heavier ions in treatment
of cancer. 1n 1947 it was also shown that heavier ions had potential
uses in therapy because of their ability to reduce the radiobiological
"oxygen effect." The application of protons and helium
ions was successful in early treatment of acromegaly and Cushing's
Studies of the
biological effects of accelerated heavy ions began at Berkeley in
1954 with the discovery that heavy particles exerted their biological
effect by producing double-strand scission in DNA, whereas x rays
produced predominantly only single-strand breaks. This finding led
to detailed studies of biological effect of heavy ions, and to the
acceleration of higher-Z heavy ions to high energies in the Bevalac.
It has been shown
since 1949 that high-energy heavy ions are continually impinging
on the earth from space. Astronauts who have flown in space have
reported seeing "streaks, stars, commas, and luminous clouds."
Experiments with heavy ions generated at the Bevalac have confirmed
that these sensations result when individual heavy ions cross the
The readers are
rewarded at the end of the book with three bonus chapters, in which
Tobias, with help of several illustrious scientists, discusses the
nature and progression of time. Living systems are their own time
clocks and the actions of living organisms, such as learning and
memory, depend crucially on the passage of time.
and his wife Ida have done a fine literary job of telling the scientific
story, intertwined with the many colorful personalities; they lived
through this period and were able to add many personal vignettes
to the scientific discoveries. Both the layman and the scientist
will enjoy this highly personal account of "People and Particles."
The book is published
by the San Francisco Press, and is available at the following bookstores
in Berkeley: Cody's Books, 2454 Telegraph (at Haste); or Black Oak
Books, 1491 Shattuck (in North Berkeley, next to the Saul's)
Copies may be ordered
by sending a check for $25 plus $2 for handling and postage (CA
resident add state tax) to the following address. All orders must
be prepaid; sorry no credit card orders.
San Francisco Press
P.O. Box 426800
(tel. 510 524 1000)
Get your copy and
enjoy it. Bill Chu, 71-259, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Berkeley, CA 94720.
NEW FACILITIES for PROTON & ION BEAM THERAPY