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Welcome to the Particles NewsLetter
Number 19 January 1997 Editor: Janet Sisterson Ph.D., HCL




  • Mailing Lists:
      PLEASE help to keep the Particles mailing list up-to-date by sending me address, telephone number, fax number and e-mail additions/corrections. Please try our GuestBook
  • Costs:
      At PTCOG XIX, the Steering Committee decided that part of the registration fee for PTCOG meetings would be used to help produce both Particles and the abstracts of the PTCOG meetings. Only part of the costs are covered in this way, so more financial help is needed from the community. HCL is always happy to receive financial gifts; all such gifts are deductible as charitable contributions for federal income tax purposes. The appropriate method is to send a check made out to the "Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory".
  • Facility and Patient Statistics:
      I am still collecting information about all operating and proposed facilities, regarding patient statistics, machine scheduling, and treatment characteristics. Please send me up-to-date information.
  • Particles on the Internet:

  • Note:
      This http version is currently missing the graphics that are on the original. Please try using the MS Word copy to save/print a paper copy locally.


    The deadline for news for Particles 20, the July 1997 issue, is May 31 1997. I will send reminders by fax or e-mail.

      Address all correspondence for the newsletter to:
      Janet Sisterson Ph. D.
      Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory
      Cambridge, MA 02138
      Telephone: (617) 495-2885
      Fax: (617) 495-8054
      44 Oxford Street
      E-mail: sisterson@huhepl.harvard,edu

    Articles for the newsletter can be short but should NOT exceed two pages in length. The best way to send an article is by computer. If you FAX me an article, remember that I scan them into the computer so I need a good clean copy of any figures.


    Chair: Michael Goitein			Secretary: Janet Sisterson
    Department of Radiation Oncology	Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory
    Massachusetts General Hospital		44 Oxford Street
    Boston MA 02114				Cambridge MA 02138
    The times and locations of the next PTCOG meetings are as follows:- 
       PTCOG XXVI	  Boston, Massachusetts USA	April 30 - May 2
       PTCOG XXVII	  Chiba, Japan	November 17 - 19 1997
       PTCOG XXVIII	  Loma Linda, CA USA	Spring 1998
       PTCOG XXIX	  Lake Maggiore, Italy	Fall 1998

PTCOG XXVI meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, USA April 30 - May 2 1997

Details of this meeting are in a SEPARATE package in this mailing. Here are some facts:
  • The registration fee will be <$200; we have not set it yet.
  • If you send in the registration form by March 10 1997, we will reduce your registration fee by $25. Please pay using cash, a check in dollars on a US bank or travelers checks.

  • Address all questions to:
    	Mrs. Dawn Trenchard, 
    	Dept. of Radiation Oncology, 
    	Massachusetts General Hospital, 
    	Boston, MA 02114.
    	fax; 617-724-9532; 
  • Deadline for hotel registration: March 29 1997. Contact the following hotels directly. The rooms are reserved as the PTCOG group.
      Holiday Inn Select		Royal Sonesta Hotel
      5 Blossom St.			5 Cambndge Parkway
      Boston, MA 02114		Cambndge, MA 02142
      TEL: (617) 742-7630		TEL: (617) 491-3600
      FAX: (617) 742-7804		FAX: (617) 661 -5956
      Single and Double: $149.95	Single and Double: $149.00
      Armed Services YMCA		John Jeffries House
      150 Second Ave			14 Embarkment Rd
      Charlestown, MA 02129 		Boston, MA 02114
      TEL:(617) 241-8400 		TEL: (617) 367-1866
      FAX: (617) 241 -2856 		FAX: (617) 742-0313
      Double rooms only: $59.00	Singles and Doubles: $75.00-$135.00
  • Deadline for requests to present a paper or poster: April 1 1997. Send requests to Janet Sisterson; E-MAIL is best.
  • Session headings:
     	Northeast Proton Therapy Center; 
    	Measurement of 3D dose distributions; 
    	Analysis of the technology and cost of delivering proton therapy 
                and the relationship of these to conventional photon therapy; 
    	evening at HCL; 
    	Clinical issues of dosimetry and radiobiology; 
    	Clinical trials, data base design, and proffered papers - 
    	    clinical; Treatment planning intercomparisons - 
    	    nasopharynx and proffered papers; 
    	PTCOG organizational meeting; 
    	Conference dinner; 
    	2 sessions of proffered papers, both clinical and physics.

Abstracts for PTCOG XXVI in Boston

    Authors are encouraged to submit an abstract of their talk, which will be published with the July 1997 issue of Particles. The ideal space allocated for each abstract is ONE HALF page; PLEASE try and keep to this length. DO NOT EXCEED one page. Please do not use a small typeface. Each abstract must have a title and a list of authors with addresses; graphs and line drawings are welcome.

6th Workshop on Heavy Charged Particles in Biology and Medicine
Baveno, Lago Maggiore, Italy September 10 - 12 1997

    The workshop will be organized by ISE of Baveno, Lago Maggiore, on September 10 12 1997, the week before the International Conference on Medical Physics in Nice, France.

    It will be dedicated to the presentation and discussion of the new results of experiments and theory in particle radiation biology. The main topic will be the application of charged-particle beams like protons and heavy ions to tumor therapy. In addition, biological, biochemical and physical problems related to radiobiology using beams of heavy charged particles will be discussed.

    For further information, please contact:

    	Roberto Cirio		Gerhard Kraft		Enzo Sacco
    	INFN TO			Biophysics GSI		IEO sez. TERA MI
    	Via Giuira 1		Planck Str. 1		via Ripamonti 435
    	I - 10125 Torino	D - 64291 Darmstadt	20141 Milano
    	Italy			Germany			Italy
    	fax; +39 11 6699579	fax: +49 6150 712106	fax: +39  2 57489208

Nice, France, September 14 - 19 1997

    From 14 - 19 September 1997, the WORLD CONGRESS ON MEDICAL PHYSICS AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING will take place in Nice on the French Riveria. After Kyoto (1991) and Rio (1994), it will provide an unique opportunity for scientific exchanges and discussions on various topics of interest for all those involved in “Particle therapy”.
      Jean-Claude ROSENWALD
      Co-chair for the Scientific Committee
    						For Scientific contacts on “protons,
    	For information about the meeting:	neutrons & heavy ions in radiotherapy”
    	NICE’ 97 - SEE				Alejandro MAZAL
    	48, rue de la Procession		Centre de Protontherapie d’Orsay, BP. 65
    	Phone: 	+ 33 1 44 49 60 60		Phone:	+ 33 1 69 29 87 00
    	Fax:	+ 33 1 44 49 60 44		Fax:	+ 33 1 69 07 55 00
PTCOG Meeting Reports: PSI and CERN. September 1996

    The Second International Symposium on Hadrontherapy , was held in Switzerland partly at PSI - Villigen (9-11 September) and partly at CERN - Geneva (11-13 September). The first part was the 1996 fall PTCOG meeting. The Symposium was organized as a joint meeting of EHTG - European Heavy Particle Therapy Group, PTCOG - Proton Therapy Co-operative Group - and TERA - Foundation for Oncological Hadrontherapy - under the sponsorship of CERN, ICRUM and PSI. The second part of the Symposium, “Advances in Hadrontherapy and its Techniques”, tackled recent developments - which are the background of technologies used on particle accelerators - and more general aspects of oncology and hadrontherapy along the lines of the First International Symposium on Hadrontherapy, held in Como (Italy) in October 1993.

    The use of hadrons in medicine has come a long way and the presence at CERN of Bob Wilson, Fermilab’s first director, who realised the potential of protons to kill cancer tumours 50 years ago, has given the opportunity to set an ideal bridge between past, present and future of hadrontherapy (R. Wilson: “A Paper of Fifty Years Ago: Radiological Use of Fast Protons” and, among the others, S. Dische: “Status and Future Directions of Tumour Therapy”; M. Goitein: “Technology of Hadrontherapy: A Review of the Existing Technologies, their Pluses and Minuses”). A global overview of the different working areas has been given by world experts in the various fields: from status and future directions of tumour therapy, with a review of past and existing hadrontherapy protocols and a deep insight into boron neutron capture therapy, (B. Larsson: “Boron Neutron Capture: A Review of the Zürich Meeting”) to the role of radiobiology in hadrontherapy centres, using bioinformatics, networking and the recent developments in accelerators and detectors but giving always the central role to the human being and to the related ethical issues. (J. Bernier: “Clinical Trials and Ethical issues in Cancer Research”).

    Other talks were given by J. Castro “ Clinical programmes: a review of past and existing hadrontherapy protocols, their results and future perspectives”; G. Kraft on “What radiobiology should be done in a hadrontherapy centre ?”; P. Zanella on “Advances in computing and trends in bioinformatics”; D. Sendall on “The invention of WWW and future developments in world-wide networks”; F. Sauli on the “Recent developments in radiation detectors”; G. Bachy on the “Advances in large and precise mechanical structures”; O. Ratib on the “Medical applications of computers and networks”; J. Yarnold on the “Impact of modern biology on clinical radiotherapy”; and A. Wambersie summarized the meeting in the “Concluding remarks”.

    During the Symposium, the presence at CERN of the travelling exhibition Hadrons for Health - set up for the first time last year by the TERA Foundation, Italy and CERN for the celebration of one hundred years of radiation physics, and appointed to make the tour of whole Europe - provided a successful and effective visual frame to the whole scientific event.

    The proceedings are at present under preparation and will be published by Elsevier, Amsterdam, as was done for the First International Symposium, with contributions ranging from the biophysical and therapeutical to computing, measurement and treatment planning issues by around 50 contributors from all over the world, with the title “Advances in Hadrontherapy”. This will be the second of a set of two volumes, the first of which entitled “Advances in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy”, which contains the Proceedings of the BNCT Meeting held in Zürich from September 4th to 7th, 1996. Ugo Amaldi, CERN, Geneva, CH-1211, Switzerland.

PTCOG News / Reports: The following reports were received by January 1997.

    Hot news from IBA: the Northeast Proton Therapy Center equipment

    The beam tests on the NPTC cyclotron are progressing well at IBA factory in Belgium. The maximum energy of 235 MeV was reached with the internal beam in late November. The beam was extracted in December and by early January 1997, a maximum current of 1200 nA had been extracted. This is four times the design goal of a 300 nA extracted beam.

    At the same time, most of the beam transport magnets are completed at the Sigmaphi factory in France, while the major parts of the gantry are undergoing final machining. The first gantry assembly will take place late February in the Cockerill Mechanic Industries factory in Belgium. Yves Jongen, Ion Beam Applications, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, Louvain-la-Neuve, B-1348, Belgium.

    News from the PSI Proton Therapy Program:

    Looking back on 1996, one is tempted to start at the end, as we treated the first human patient on the PSI proton gantry in November 1996. This was the event we had been working for since some years, and we succeeded in a satisfying performance of the therapy. But to be reasonable, we should reveal the events of 1996 in the right order, which points out how our project developed in it’s final phase before going into operation.

    On January 30, 1996, PSI celebrated the official inauguration of the gantry with a lot of public relation, press, TV, guests and contributions from different speakers. Prof. Herman Suit and Prof. Michael Goitein gave presentations to the Proton Users Group at PSI during their assembly in the morning of that day as well as to the general audience during the official ceremony in the afternoon. This event had to take place early in 1996 for logistic reasons, though the facility was not yet ready for patient treatments. The next important date for the proton project was April, when the whole Life Science Department was audited. Amongst the different projects, proton therapy was judged to be of first priority for PSI’s future activities. In June, experts from Berkeley, Boston and Darmstadt came for a safety review. It was the first safety review for the gantry project, and the outcome was not only an excellent and very detailed report with recommendations, but also an additional challenge for our group to improve the project as far as possible. Beside this we had also our own plans for technical developments which we wanted to complete before treating human patients. During summer and fall we worked on the recommended changes and refinements of hard- and software, in parallel we irradiated three animal patients (dogs with spontaneous nasal and brain tumors). In September we had the pleasure to host PTCOG XXV and to show the new facility to our interested guests.

    The first human patient was referred in November by the University Clinic of Zurich for a boost treatment of a brain metastases from a malignant melanoma. A safe performance of the treatment, which had to be finished before the onset of the shutdown in December, was the main goal. The patient had had 46 Gy whole brain irradiation before, we boosted the visible lesion in the thalamus area with 4 x 2.5 CGE. The patient had a whole body mold and head fixation with a mask. Before each treatment we did a position check with orthogonal CT scout views and additional x-rays on the gantry. The clinical status of the patient improved during the treatment. He was dismissed from the nearby hospital in Brugg to his family, who takes very good care of him. A follow up CT of the brain is planned at the end of January.

    The medical activities on the gantry will restart in April 1997 after the shutdown of the main PSI accelerator. Gudrun Munkel, Division of Radiation Medicine, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, CH-5232, Switzerland.

    News from the National Accelerator Centre, Faure, South Africa:

    Up to 30 November 1996 a total of 880 patients had been treated in the neutron therapy programme (since September 1988), while 175 patients had been treated on the proton therapy facility (since September 1993), mainly for intracranial lesions.

    The design of a multiblade post-collimator trimmer for neutron therapy is well advanced. This device should be installed early next year and will provide more flexible and convenient beam shaping. A new protocol for the treatment of advanced breast cancer with neutrons has recently been implemented while treatment in a new prostate protocol will begin next year.

    A preliminary design study for fixed near-vertical (15 degree) and horizontal beam lines in an empty vault is in progress. Magnets and power supplies from a physics experiment which may be dismantled could be used, resulting in a significant cost saving.

    The tenure of Prof Gerd Schmitt (University of Dusseldorf) as Consultant Radiation Oncologist has just ended. We are most grateful to him for the valuable contribution he has made to our clinical programme during the last 3 years.

    	(all treatments fractionated)
    DIAGNOSIS		Up to		Since		Total
    			31 Dec 1995	1 Jan 1996
    AVM			28		12		40
    Acoustic neuroma	14		10		24
    Meningioma		15		6		21
    Brain metastasis	14		1		15
    Pituitary adenoma	13		6		19
    Glioma (low grade)	5				5
    Craniopharyngioma	4		1		5
    Oropharyngeal ca.	2				2
    Carcinoma of the orbit	1		5		6
    Prostate ca. (boost)	2				2
    Glioma (high grade)	2		3		5
    Skull base ca.		3		5		8
    Skull base sarcoma	1		2		3
    Paranasal sinus ca.	2		3		5
    Choroidal melanoma	1				1
    Haemangiopericytoma	1		1		2
    Paraspinal metastasis	2		1		3
    Lachrymal sac carcinoma	1				1
    Tongue -base carcinoma	1				1
    Adenocarcinoma of nose	1				1
    Adenocystic ca. of 
        hard palate		1				1
    Osteosarcoma				1		1
    Rectal ca.				1		1
    Haemangioblastoma	1		2		3
    TOTALS			115		60		175

      Dan Jones, National Accelerator Centre, P. O. Box 72, Faure 7131, South Africa.

    FLUKA and GEANT: Real and Simulated Data Comparative Studies for Proton Energy Loss:

    Various problems need to be solved using simulation codes in hadrontherapy; among these we direct our attention to dE/dx for low energy ( lower than 1 MeV) and to detector dimensions. The simulation codes used were originally designed for high energy physics experiments and it thus necessary to verify their behaviour at the energies of interest. Of these we consider GEANT and FLUKA. GEANT is a code developed at CERN in which one of the packages for describing hadronic showers is FLUKA. FLUKA is a stand alone code and only the parts dealing with hadronic interaction have been included in GEANT.; they do not usually represent the latest FLUKA developments. We also use the FLUKA standalone, in which the field of application has been extended for its use in hadrontherapy and it is still in development.

    To obtain protons dE/dx we consider a pencil beam which interacts with a thin volume. The detector sections is (1 x 1) cm2 and the thickness selected is 1/100th of the range for precise energy deposition. When this is not possible the lowest thickness selected is 1 x 10-3 cm which is the limit of GEANT stepping. For FLUKA there is no limitation for step choice. The materials with which the beam interacts are hydrogen, oxygen and lead as elements and air, water and equivalent tissue (A150) as compounds. The energy range goes from 10 keV to 1 MeV with small energy steps and from 1 MeV to 200 MeV with larger steps.

    	Figure 1.	Figure 2.
    Figure 1 shows the hydrogen percentage difference between the dE/dx values simulated with GEANT and FLUKA and the ones tabulated in ICRU. As can be seen, there is little difference between the results obtained with the two codes although the smaller difference with respect to the ICRU data is obtained using FLUKA. In Figure 2., where we show the results for equivalent tissue, an evident difference can be seen; until 800 keV only the FLUKA simulation is possible because the thickness selected is lower than the thickness limit accepted by GEANT. When GEANT is usable, FLUKA gives the better results.

    The first approach to the use of simulation codes originally written for high energy physics leads us to the following results: the minimum detector width for FLUKA is 1 nm and 1 x 10-3 cm for GEANT. When the proton energy is below one MeV, however, the use of FLUKA is still very approximate and the conclusions we can reach must be considered with particular care. Even though our simulation framework is very simple, we know that simulating complex geometry is easier using GEANT. Using FLUKA, however, it is possible to score energy in a binning structure which is independent of the geometry simulated.

    S. Garelli, S. Giordano and S. Squarcia, Dipartimento di Fisica e Sezione INFN di Genova, Italy.


List dated January 1997

Berlin			Germany	      p	      1997  72 MeV cyclotron; eye treatment beam line.
G.S.I Darmstadt		Germany	      ion     1997  First Carbon beam in the medical cave 7/6/95
KVI Groningen		Netherlands   p	      1998  plan:- 200 MeV accel.; 2 rms; 1 gantry; 1 fix.
NPTC (Harvard)		MA U.S.A.     p	      1998  at MGH; 235 MeV cyclotron; 2 gantries + 3 horiz.
Kashiwa			Japan	      p	      1998  235MeV cyclotron;2gantries;1horiz; under construction
NC Star			NC U.S.A.     p	      1999?  synchrotron; 70-300 MeV; 2 horiz; 1 gantry
Hyogo			Japan	      ion     2000  protons & ion; 2 gantries; 1 horiz; 1 vert; 1 45 deg.
TERA			Italy	      p, ion  2002? H- accel; 60-250 MeV p; +BNCT; isotope prod.
AUSTRON			Austria	      ion     ?	    protons and light ions.
Beijing			China	      p	      ?	    250 MeV synchrotron.
Central Italy		Italy	      p	      ?	    cyclotron; 1 gantry; 1 fixed
Clatterbridge		England	      p	      ?	    upgrade using booster linear accelerator.
ISS (Italian “NIH”)	Italy	      p	      ?	    200 MeV linac;1eye room; gantry?;under construction
ITEP Moscow		Russia	      p	      ?	    3 horiz.-1 fix beam, 2 gantry, 1 exp., H- accel.
Jülich (KFA)		Germany	      p	      ?	    exp. beam line; plans for therapy.
Krakow			Poland	      p	      ?	    60 MeV proton beam.
Kyoto			Japan	      p	      ?	    250 MeV synchrotron; gantry; 1 fixed horiz beam.
Proton Development N.A.	IL USA	      p	      ?	    300 MeV protons; therapy & lithography
PROTOX			England	      p	      2001? existing RAL synchrotron; 250 MeV; 3 treat. gantry
Regensburg		Germany	      p	      ?	    gantry;1 fixed beam; 1 eye beam.

List dated January 1997

Berkeley 184	 CA. U.S.A.	p	1954 —  1957	30	        
Berkeley	 CA. U.S.A.	He	1957 —  1992	2054	June-91  
Uppsala		 Sweden		p	1957 — 	1976	73	
Harvard		 MA. U.S.A.	p	1961		6972	Dec-96  
Dubna		 Russia		p	1967 — 	1974	84	
Moscow		 Russia		p	1969		2838	May-96  
Los Alamos	 NM. U.S.A.	¹-	1974 — 	1982	230	        
St. Petersburg	 Russia		p	1975		969	Dec-95  
Berkeley	 CA. U.S.A.  heavy ion	1975 — 	1992	433	June-91
Chiba		 Japan		p	1979		96	Oct-96
TRIUMF		 Canada		¹-	1979 — 	1994	367	Dec-93
PSI (SIN)	 Switzerland	¹-	1980 — 	1993	503	
PMRC, Tsukuba	 Japan		p	1983		462	July-95
PSI (72 MeV)	 Switzerland	p	1984		2261	Dec-96
Dubna		 Russia		p	1987		40	Nov-96
Uppsala		 Sweden		p	1989		81	Mar-96
Clatterbridge	 England	p	1989		698	June-96
Loma Linda	 CA. U.S.A	p	1990		2000	July-96
Louvain-la-Neuve Belgium	p	1991		21	Nov-93
Nice		 France		p	1991		636	Nov-95
Orsay		 France		p	1991		673	Nov-95
N.A.C.		 South Africa	p	1993		175	Nov-96
IUCF		 IN USA		p	1993		1	Dec-94
UCSF - CNL	 CA U.S.A	p	1994		92	Nov-96
HIMAC, Chiba	 Japan	     heavy ion	1994		150	Aug-96
TRIUMF		 Canada		p	1995		23	Dec-96
PSI (200 MeV)	 Switzerland	p	1996		1	Dec-96
							1100	pions
							2637	ions 
							18226	protons
						TOTAL	21963	all particles

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