ABTA Dictionary for Brain Tumor Patients
This dictionary explains terms the patient with a brain tumor
is likely to hear or read. For additional information, consult with
the medical professionals caring for you or refer to a medical dictionary
or text book.
All rights reserved. Copyright © 1991, 1993 by American Brain
Tumor Association ISBN 0-944093-27-2 Reproduction without prior
written permission is prohibited.
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Neurooncology homepage for on-line brain tumor resources
accessible (ak ses' sah bul) Refers to tumors that can
be approached by a surgical procedure; tumors that are not deep
in the brain or beneath vital structures. Inaccessible tumors cannot
be approached by standard surgical techniques.
acuity (ah ku' ih tee) Refers to clarity or distinctness
of hearing or sight.
adjuvant (ad' ju vant) A therapy used in addition to or
accompanying another treatment.
agnosia (ag no' zee ah) Loss of ability to recognize objects,
people, sounds, shapes, or smells. Usually classified according
to the sense or senses affected (hearing, sight, smell, taste, touch).
Symptom common to tumors of the parietal lobe of the cerebral hemispheres.
agraphia (ah graf' e ah) Loss of ability to write (a form
of aphasia). Symptom common to tumors of the parietal lobe of the
dominant cerebral hemisphere.
alopecia (al o pee' she ah) Loss of hair; baldness in areas
where hair is usually present. A common side effect of radiation
therapy to the brain and some chemical therapies.
analgesic (an al gee' zik) A medicine used to reduce pain.
anaplasia (an ah play' zee ah) Characteristics of a cell
(structure and orientation) that make it identifiable as a cancer
angiogenesis (an gee o jen' ih sis) The growth of new blood
vessels from surrounding tissue into growing tissue.
angiogram (an' gee o gram) A diagnostic procedure done
in the x-ray department to visualize blood vessels following introduction
of a contrast material into an artery.
anorexia (an o rek' see ah) Loss of appetite.
anosmia (an oz' me ah) Absence of the sense of smell. Symptom
common to tumors of the frontal lobe of the cerebral hemispheres.
aphasia (ah faz' e ah) Loss of ability to speak or write;
loss of ability to understand speech or written words.
articulation (ar tik u lay' shun) Speech.
artifact (ar' tih fakt) Something artificial, a distortion
that does not reflect normal anatomy or pathology, not usually found
in the body. For example, in radiology, the appearance on an x-ray
of a surgical metal clip that obscures the clear view of an anatomical
ataxic gait (ah tak' sik gate) Walking that is clumsy,
autologous (aw tol' o gus) Coming from the same individual,
as opposed to being donated by another individual.
axial (ak' see al) Position as it relates to the CNS. Intra-axial
is within the CNS; extra-axial is outside the CNS.
benign (be nine') Not malignant, not cancerous.
biological response modifier (bi o loj' ih cul ree sponse'
mod' ih fi ur) A substance used in adjuvant therapy that takes advantage
of the body's own natural defense mechanisms to inhibit the growth
of a tumor.
biopsy (bi' op see) Examination of a small amount of tissue
taken from the patient's body to make a diagnosis.
blood brain barrier (blud brane bar' e ur) A protective
barrier formed by the blood vessels and glia of the brain. It prevents
some substances in the blood from entering brain tissue.
cancer (kan' sur) Malignant tissue that is invasive, destroys
healthy tissue, and tends to spread to distant locations.
carcinoma (car sih no' mah) A malignant tumor that arises
from epithelium, found in skin or, more commonly, the lining of
body organs, for example, breast, prostate, lung, stomach or bowel.
Carcinomas tend to infiltrate into adjacent tissue and spread (metastasize)
to distant organs, for example, to bone, liver, lung or the brain.
catheter (kath' ih tur) A flexible, tubular surgical instrument.
Used in body cavities or vessels for the removal or insertion of
cell (sel) The basic living unit of body tissue. It contains
a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm and is enclosed by a membrane.
cell cycle (sel si' kul) The reproductive stages of a cell
leading to cell division (mitosis).
central nervous system (CNS) (sen' tral nur' vus sis' tem)
Pertaining to the brain, cranial nerves and spinal cord. It does
not include muscles or peripheral nerves.
cerebellopontine angle (ser eh bel' o pon' teen ang' gul)
The angle between the cerebellum and the pons, a common site for
the growth of acoustic neuromas.
cerebral (ser e' brul) Referring to the cerebrum.
cerebrospinal fluid (ser e bro spi' nal flu' id) The clear
fluid made in the ventricular cavities of the brain that bathes
the brain and spinal cord. It circulates through the ventricles
and the subarachnoid space.
cerebrum (ser e' brum) The largest area of the brain, the
cerebrum occupies the uppermost part of the skull. It consists of
two halves called hemispheres. Each half of the cerebrum is further
divided into four lobes: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital.
chemotherapy (ke mo ther' ah pee) The use of chemical agents
to treat brain tumors.
circumscribed (sir' come skribd) Having a border, localized.
Often associated with a capsule and benign tumors of the brain,
for example, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas and acoustic neuromas.
clinical (klin' ih kul) That which can be observed in patients.
Research that uses patients to test new treatments, as opposed to
laboratory testing or research in animals.
clinical cooperative group (klin' ih kul co op' ur ah tiv
groop) A group of medical institutions cooperating to perform clinical
(brain tumor) research.
CNS see Central Nervous System.
congenital (kon jen' ih tul) Existing before or at birth.
contralateral (kon trah lat' ur al) Affecting the opposite
side. See ipsilateral.
cranial cavity (kra' nee ul kah' vih tee) The skull.
craniectomy (kra nee ek' toe me) Surgery performed on the
skull where pieces of bone are removed to gain access to the brain,
and the bone pieces are not replaced.
craniotomy (kra ne ot' o me) Surgery performed on the skull
where a portion of bone is removed to gain access to the brain,
and the bone is put back in its place.
CSF See cerebrospinal fluid.
CT or CAT scan Computerized Axial T omography.
An x-ray device linked to a computer that produces an image of a
predetermined cross-section of the brain. A special dye material
may be injected into the patient's vein prior to the scan to help
make any abnormal tissue more evident.
cyst (sist) A fluid-filled mass. Usually enclosed by a
cytotoxic (sigh toe tok' sic) Capable of killing cells.
debulk (dee bulk') A surgical procedure to decrease mass
effect by removing a portion of a tumor or dead tissue. See mass
Decadron® (dek' ah dron) Dexamethasone. A glucocorticosteroid
medication used to reduce brain tissue swelling.
decompressive (dee kom pres' sive) Refers to a surgical
procedure during which bone, tissue, or tumor is removed to lessen
dedifferentiate (dee dif' fur en she ate) A mature cell
returning to a less mature state. See differentiate, undifferentiated.
delivery (dee liv' ur ee) See drug delivery.
density (den' sih tee) The amount of darkness or light
in an area of a scan reflects the compactness and density of tissue.
Differences in tissue density are the basis for CT and MR scans.
diabetes insipidus (di ah be' tez in sip' id us) A problem
with water balance in the body causing excess urine production and
great thirst, due to pituitary-hypothalamic damage. Diabetes mellitus,
which has the same symptoms, is due to insufficient insulin production
by the pancreas.
differentiate (dif fur en' she ate) The process cells undergo
as they mature into normal cells. Differentiated cells have distinctive
characteristics, perform specific functions, and are less likely
to divide. See dedifferentiate, undifferentiated.
diffuse (dif fuse') Lacking a distinct border, not localized,
spread out. See circumscribed.
diploid (dip' loyd) A cell having two full sets of chromosomes,
the normal number for human cells. Eggs and sperm contain a single
set of chromosomes (haploid).
diplopia (dih plo' pee ah) Double vision.
distal (dis' tull) Located far from the reference point.
drug delivery (drug de liv' ur ee) The method and route
used to provide medication.
dura mater (du' rah ma' tur) The outermost, toughest, and
most fibrous of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain
and spinal cord.
dysarthria (dis ar' three ah) Impairment of speech (articulation),
caused by damage or disorder of the tongue or speech muscles. Symptom
may indicate pressure on the brain stem (medulla oblongata) or elsewhere
in the posterior fossa.
dysfunctional (dis funk' shun al) Working improperly or
dysphagia (dis fay' gee ah) Difficulty in swallowing or
inability to swallow. Symptom usually indicates tumors involving
the lower brain stem.
dysphasia (dis fay' zee ah) Language disorder. Inability
to speak words which one has in mind or to think of correct words;
or inability to understand spoken or written words. Symptom common
to tumors of the dominant cerebral hemisphere, particularly the
frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes.
edema (eh dee' mah) Swelling due to an excess of water.
embryonic (em bree on' ik) Undeveloped, related to the
emesis (em' ih sis) Vomiting.
encapsulated (en kap' sue la ted) Refers to a tumor that
is wholly confined to a specific area, surrounded by a capsule.
epidemiology (ep ih dee me ol' o gee) The study of the
distribution of disease and its impact upon a population, using
such measures as incidence, prevalence, or mortality.
etiology (e tee ol' o gee) The study of the cause of a
evoked potentials (e voked' po ten' shals) The use of electrodes
to measure the electrical activity of nerves. May be used as a guide
during surgical removal of tumors growing around important nerves.
extracerebral (eks trah seh ree' bral) Located outside
the cerebral hemispheres.
extradural (eks trah du' ral) External (outside) to the
focal (foe' kal) Limited to one specific area.
foci (fo' sigh) Plural of focus. The origin or center of
a disseminated disease.
gait (gate) Pattern of walking.
ganglia (gang' lee ah) A mass of nerve tissue (gray matter),
or a group of nerve cell bodies. Also refers to specific groups
within the brain or spinal cord (as basal ganglia). Ganglion is
the singular of ganglia.
generic (je ner' ik) A drug not protected by a trademark.
Also, the scientific name as opposed to the proprietary, brand name.
genesis (jen' ih sis) The beginning of a process.
GFAP Glial Fibrillary Acidic P
rotein. This protein, found in microfilaments of glial cells,
helps distinguish glial from non-glial tumors. A laboratory stain
is used to test for its presence.
gland (gland) An organ of the body that produces materials
(hormones) released into the bloodstream, such as the pituitary
or pineal gland. Hormones influence metabolism and other body functions.
glia (neuroglia) (glee' ah) Supportive tissue of the brain.
There are three types of glial tissue: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes
and microglia. Glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses, as
opposed to neurons.
glioma (glee o' mah) Any tumor arising from glial tissue.
glucocorticosteroids (glu ko kor tih ko stair' oid) Medications
used to decrease swelling around tumors.
gray matter (gray mat' ur) Gray matter, the "thinking
brain", appears gray because it is composed of numerous nerve
cells and blood vessels. The outer layer of the cerebrum - the cerebral
cortex, and areas deep within the brain - the basal ganglia, are
made up of gray matter. See white matter.
growth factor (growth fak' tur) A naturally occurring protein
chemical that stimulates cell division and proliferation. It is
produced by normal cells during embryonic development, tissue growth,
and wound healing. Tumors, however, produce large amounts of growth
hemianopsia (hem e an op' see ah) Loss of one half of the
field of vision (the area that can be seen by each eye when staring
hemiparesis (hem e par' e sis) Muscle weakness of one side
of the body.
hemiplegia (hem e plee' je ah) Complete paralysis of one
side of the body.
hereditary (heh red'ih tair e) Transferred via genes from
parent to child. Also called genetic.
herniation (her nee a' shun) Bulging of tissue through
an opening in a membrane, muscle or bone.
heterogeneous (het er o gee' nee us) Composed of varied
homogeneous (ho mo gee' nee us) Composed of identical cell
hydrocephalus (hi dro sef' ah lus) Hydro = water, cephalo
= head. Excess water in the brain due to blockage of cerebrospinal
fluid flow, increased production, or decreased absorption.
hyperfractionation (hi per frak shun a' shun) An increased
number of smaller dosage treatments of radiation therapy.
hyperthermia (hi per ther' me ah) The use of heat to kill
hypophysis (hi pof' ih sis) Pituitary gland.
hypotonicity (hi po toe nis' ih tee) Diminished muscle
tone; limp muscles.
ICP Intracranial pressure, harmful
IICP Increased intracranial p ressure.
immunotherapy (im mu no ther' ah pee) Use of the body's
immune system to fight tumors. See biological response modifier.
inaccessible (in ak ses' sah bul) See accessible.
infiltrating (in' fil tray ting) Refers to a tumor that
penetrates the normal, surrounding tissue.
informed consent (in formed' kon sent') The right to have
information explained to you so that you fully understand and agree
to the nature of the proposed treatment.
interstitial radiation therapy (in ter stish' al ray dee
a' shun ther' ah pee) The implantation of radioactive seeds directly
into a tumor.
intra-arterial (in trah-ar te' re al) Injection into an
artery (that may supply a tumor).
intracerebral (in trah seh ree' bral) Located within the
cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum). See extracerebral.
intracranial (in trah kra' nee al) Within the skull.
intradural (in trah du' ral) Beneath the dura mater.
intramuscular (in trah mus' ku lar) Into a muscle.
intrathecal (in trah thee' kal) Injection into the sub-arachnoid
space of the meninges. Usually done by lumbar puncture.
intratumoral (in trah tu mor' al) Injection into a tumor
(usually performed during surgery).
intravenous (in trah vee' nus) Injection into a vein.
intraventricular (in trah ven trik' u lar) Injection into
invasive (in vay' siv) Refers to a tumor that invades healthy
tissues. The opposite of encapsulated. Also called diffuse or infiltrating.
ipsilateral (ip sah lat' ur al) Affecting the same side.
irradiation (ih ray dee a' shun) Treatment by ionizing
radiation, such as x-rays, or radioactive sources such as radioactive
iodine seeds. See radiation therapy.
laser (lay' zur) An acronym of light amplification
by stimulated emission of radiation. A surgical
tool that creates intense heat and power when focused at close range,
destroying cells by vaporizing them.
lethargy (leth' ar gee) Sluggishness, drowsiness, indifference.
local (lo' kal) In the area of the tumor; confined to one
lumbar puncture (lum' bar punk' tur) Spinal tap. Needle
penetration into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spine. Used
to withdraw a sample of spinal fluid for examination. Also used
to inject a dye into the spine prior to a myelogram.
malignant (mah lig' nant) Cancerous or life-threatening,
tending to become progressively worse.
Mannitol® (man' ih tol) A medication given to reduce brain
swelling and elevated intracranial pressure. Also used to temporarily
disrupt the blood brain barrier prior to some forms of chemotherapy.
mass effect (mas ef fekt') Damage to the brain due the
bulk of a tumor, the blockage of fluid, or excess accumulation of
fluid within the skull.
median survival (me' de an sur vi' val) Median means the
middle value. An equal number of people live longer as die earlier
than the median.
membrane (mem' brain) Thin layer of tissue covering a surface,
lining a body cavity, or dividing a space or organ.
metastasize (meh tas' tah siz) To spread to another part
of the body, usually through the blood vessels, lymph channels,
or spinal fluid.
metastatic brain tumor (meh tah stat' ick brain tu' mor)
A brain tumor caused by cancer elsewhere in the body spreading to
monoclonal antibodies (MAB) (mon o klon' al an' te bod
eze) A biological response modifier with unique "homing device"
properties. Chemicals or radiation tagged to the MAB may be delivered
directly to tumor cells. Or, the MAB itself may be capable of tumor
MRI scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
MRI is a scanning device that uses a magnetic field, radio waves,
and a computer. Signals emitted by normal and diseased tissue during
the scan are assembled into an image.
mutate (mu tate') Change in the genetic material (DNA)
inside the cell.
necrosis (neh kro' sis) Dead cells. A common feature of
glioblastoma multiforme and other malignant tumors, including metastatic
cancer to the brain. Caused either by lack of blood supply or irradiation.
neoplasm (nee' o plazm) A tumor, either benign or malignant.
neuroectoderm (nur o eck' toe durm) The region of the embryo
that eventually develops into the nervous system.
neuron (new' ron) Nerve cell; conducts electrical signals.
nervous system (nur' vus sis' tem) The entire integrated
system of nerve tissue in the body: the brain, brain stem, spinal
cord, nerves and ganglia.
nuclear medicine (noo' klee ar med' ih sin) The branch
of medicine that deals with the use of radioisotopes in therapy
nucleus (noo' klee us) The center of the cell containing
the genetic information (genes and chromosomes, DNA, etc). The appearance
of the nucleus is used as a criterion to determine the malignant
potential of a cell or tissue.
nystagmus (nis tag' mus) Rapid movement of the eyeballs.
Ommaya reservoir (o my' ah rez' ur vwar) A device with
a fluid reservoir implanted under the scalp with a catheter to a
ventricle. It allows for medication to be given directly to the
CSF and into the brain.
oncogene (ong' ko jean) Fragments of genetic material (DNA)
that carry the potential to cause cancer (transform normal cells
into malignant cells).
oncogenesis (ong ko jen' eh sis) The causation or production
palliative care (pal' e ah tiv kare) Caring for a patient
by maintaining the best quality of remaining life. Also offering
support and guidance to the patient and family.
palsy (pawl' zee) Complete paralysis.
papilledema (pap il eh dee' mah) Swelling of the optic
nerve. Indicates increased intracranial pressure on the optic nerve.
Also called choked disc.
paralysis (pah ral' ih sis) Loss of muscle function due
to injury or disease of the nervous system.
paresis (pah ree' sis) Weakness.
paresthesia (par es thee' ze ah) Abnormal sensations, such
as burning, prickling.
PET scan Positron Emission Tomography.
A scanning device which uses low-dose radioactive sugar to measure
brain activity. This is a limited-use diagnostic tool.
Phenobarbitol® (fee no bar'bih tol) A sedating medication
used to control seizures.
photodynamic radiation therapy (foe toe di nam'ik ray dee
a' shun ther'ah pee) A light sensitive drug is given through a vein
and concentrates in the tumor. Then, during a surgical procedure,
a special light activates the drug. The activated drug kills tumor
PNET Primitive Neuroectodermal T
primary brain tumor (pri' mar ee brane tu' mor) Original
source of tumor is the brain rather than other areas of the body.
primitive (prim' ih tiv) Undeveloped or in early stages
of development, undifferentiated.
prognosis (prog no' sis) A forecast as to probable outcome.
protocol (pro' toe kol) An outline of care; a treatment
proto-oncogenes (pro' toe-ong' koe jeans) Fragments of
genetic material (DNA), related to oncogenes, but are the normal
"switches" used to control growth and tissue repair.
proximal (prock' sih mal) Located closest to the reference
point. See distal.
quality of life (kwol' ih tee ov life) Refers to the level
of comfort, enjoyment, ability to pursue daily activities. Often
used in discussions of treatment options.
radiation therapy (ray dee a' shun ther' ah pee) The use
of radiation energy to interfere with tumor growth. See irradiation.
radioresistant (ray dee o ree zis' tant) Resistant to radiation
radiosensitive (ray dee o sen' sih tiv) Responsive to radiation
radiosurgery See stereotactic radiosurgery
recurrence (ree kur' ens) The return of symptoms or the
tumor itself, as opposed to a remission.
rehabilitation (ree hah bil ih tay' shun) The return of
function after illness or injury, often with the assistance of specialized
remission (ree mish' shun) The disappearance of symptoms;
the disappearance of the tumor.
resection (ree sek' shun) Surgical removal of a tumor.
residual (ree zid' yu al) Remaining tumor.
respiration (res pur a' shun) Breathing. To inhale and
seizure (see' zhur) Convulsions. Epilepsy. Due to temporary
disruption in electrical activity of the brain.
shunt (shunt) A drainage system. Spinal fluid flows from
a ventricle into a body cavity via a tube. Used to relieve increased
intracranial pressure caused by brain tumors that block the flow
of spinal fluid.
ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunt: the tube empties into
the right atrium of the heart.
ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt: the tube empties
into the abdominal cavity.
spasticity (spas tis' ih tee) Increased involuntary muscle
contraction (the opposite of hypotonicity).
spinal fluid (spy' nal flu' id) See cerebrospinal fluid
stalk (stawk) A stem. Usually refers to the pituitary stalk
that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
stereotactic (steh ree o tak' tik) Precise positioning
in three dimensional space. Refers to surgery or radiation therapy
directed by various scanning devices.
stereotactic radiosurgery (steh ree o tak' tik ra' dee
o sir' jur ee) A radiation therapy technique that uses a large number
of narrow, precisely aimed, highly focused beams of ionizing radiation.
The beams are aimed from many directions circling the head, and
meet at a specific point.
steroids (stair' oid) See glucocorticosteroids.
strabismus (strah biz' mus) Imperfect eye coordination
subcutaneous (sub cue tay' nee us) Beneath the skin.
systemic (sis tem' ik) Circulating throughout the body.
Tegretol® (teg' rit tol) Carbamazine. A medication given
to control seizures; also used for pain relief in patients who have
tinnitus (tin nye' tus) Buzzing or ringing in the ear.
Symptom common to tumors of the acoustic nerve.
tissue (tish' yu) A group of similar cells united to perform
a specific function.
tumor (tu' mor) An abnormal growth. Tumors may be benign
or malignant by cell type, or life-threatening (malignant) by their
tumor marker (tu' mor mar' kur) Substances found in blood
or other fluids that identify the presence of a tumor, and/or the
ultrasound (ul' trah sownd) Visualization of structures
in the body by recording the reflections of sound waves directed
into tissues. May be used during surgery.
undifferentiated (un' dif fur en' she a ted) An immature,
embryonic, or primitive cell. It has a nonspecific appearance with
multiple nonspecific activities and functions poorly. See differentiate,
vascular (vas' cue lur) Relating to blood vessels.
vascularity (vas ku lair' ih tee) The blood supply of a
vertigo (ver' tih go) Dizziness. Symptom common to tumors
of the acoustic nerve.
white matter (whyte mat' ur) Brain tissue composed of myelin-coated
nerve cell fibers. White matter carries information between the
nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The inner portion of the
cerebrum is composed of white matter. See gray matter.
anesthesiologist A physician trained in administering anesthetics
and caring for people who are anesthetized. Anesthetics are drugs
or agents used during surgery to prevent the sense of pain. Local
anesthesia numbs a small area; general anesthesia produces unconsciousness.
clinical nurse specialist A registered nurse with an advanced
degree in a particular area of patient care; e.g., neurosurgery
clinical nurse specialist.
dietician An individual trained in diet and nutrition.
endocrinologist A physician trained in diagnosing and treating
disorders of hormone-secreting (endocrine) organs. These organs
include the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, the pituitary,
the pineal body and the gonads.
fellow A doctor who has completed medical school, internship
and a residency, and has chosen to receive very specialized training
in one particular treatment or research area.
intern A medical doctor who has completed medical school
and is in the first year of additional training.
medical oncologist A physician trained in diagnosing and
treating tumors and cancer with chemotherapeutic or immunologic
neurologist A physician trained in the diagnosis and treatment
of diseases and disorders of the nervous system.
neuro-oncologist An physician who specializes in treating
patients with brain tumors, and/or the consequences of cancer upon
the nervous system. The physician may be a trained neurologist,
oncologist or neurosurgeon.
neuropathologist A pathologist who establishes the diagnosis
in diseases of the nervous system by careful microscopic examination
of the tissue.
neuropsychologist A psychologist who specializes in ailments
of the mind and mental processes caused by disease of the nervous
neuroradiologist A radiologist who specializes in the use
of radioactive substances, x-rays and scanning devices for the diagnosis
of diseases of the nervous system.
neurosurgeon A physician trained in surgery of the nervous
nurse practitioner A registered nurse with advanced training
in a particular area of health care, e.g., pediatric nurse practitioners
have additional education in the care of children.
occupational therapist An individual trained to help people
manage the daily activities of living, such as dressing, grooming
or cooking, and regaining vocational skills.
oncologist A cancer specialist.
ophthalmologist A physician trained in diagnosis and treatment
of diseases of the eye.
otolaryngologist A physician trained in diagnosis and treatment
of diseases of the ear, the nose, and throat.
pathologist A physician trained in the nature, cause, process
and effects of disease; examines samples of tissue removed during
surgery to determine an exact diagnosis.
pharmacist An individual trained in preparing and dispensing
physiatrist A physician trained in rehabilitative medicine.
physical therapist An individual trained to assist people
in restoring muscle function.
physician's assistant A technician trained to administer
certain procedures under the direct supervision of a physician.
radiation oncologist/radiation therapist
A radiologist who specializes in the use of radioactive substances
and x-rays for the treatment of tumors and cancer.
radiologist A physician trained in the use of radioactive
substances, x-rays, and other imaging techniques to arrive at a
registered nurse A trained medical professional who assists
people in health care under the direction of a physician.
resident A medical doctor who has completed medical school
and internship, and is receiving training in a specialized area.
Completion of a residency program is required for board certification
in a medical or surgical specialty.
social worker An individual, usually with a university
degree in social work, who provides counsel and aid to individuals
with emotional and family problems.
speech (and language) therapist An individual trained to
assist patients in restoring speech and communication functions.
R/O rule out
RXT (XRT) radiation therapy
NPO nothing by mouth
PO by mouth
PERTAINING TO MEDICINES
BID twice a day
Q 4 H every four hours
QD every day
QID four times a day
TID three times a day
an absent, without
dys difficult, abnormal, not functioning properly
homo alike, similar
hyper high, excessive, increased
hypo low, deficient, insufficient
infra below, under
intra within, inside
para beside, next to, beyond
peri around, surrounding
sub under, near, almost, moderately, less than
supra, super above, over
aden, adeno pertaining to a gland
angi, angio pertaining to a blood vessel
cephal pertaining to the head
cerebr, cerebri pertaining to the brain
cyt, cyto pertaining to cells
glossa pertaining to the tongue
hema, hemo pertaining to blood
idio peculiar to a specific individual
immuno pertaining to the immune system
neuro pertaining to nerves
ocul, oculo pertaining to eyes
onco pertaining to a tumor or malignancy
phag pertaining to eating or swallowing
phleb pertaining to a vein
psych pertaining to the mind
thromb pertaining to a blood clot
veni, veno pertaining to veins
cide capable of killing
ectomy surgical removal
genesis formation of
ology study of
plasia, plasm growth, formation
suppression slowing down, restraint, inhibition
Length: inches (in) converted to meters (m)
12 in (inches) = 1 ft (foot)
2.5 cm (centimeters) = 1 in
1 m (meter) = 100 cm
1 in .0254 m = 2.5 cm
12 in (1 ft) .3
2.0 ft .6
2.5 ft .8
3.0 ft 1.9
3.5 ft 1.1
4.0 ft 1.2
4.5 ft 1.4
5.0 ft 1.5
5.5 ft 1.7
6.0 ft 1.8
6.5 ft 2.0
Weight: pounds (lb) converted to kilograms
1 oz (ounce) = 28 g (grams) = .028 kg (kilograms)
16 oz = 1 lb (pound) = .45 kg
1 g = .035 oz
1000g = 1 kg
1.0 lb .45 kg
Temperature: Fahrenheit (F) converted to
[(F°-32) X 5]/9 = degrees C°
[(C° X 9)/5] + 32 = degrees F°
Liquids: ounces (oz) converted to cubic centimeters
1 cc = 1 ml (milliliter)
1000 cc = 1000 ml = 1 L (liter)
8 oz = 1 c (cup)
2 cups = 1 pt (pint) = 16 oz = 474 cc = .47 L
1 oz 29.6 cc
We gratefully acknowledge the volunteer efforts of Gail Segal
for writing this publication. We also extend our appreciation to
Steven Brem, M.D., Professor of Neurosurgery, Northwestern University
Medical School, Director, Neurosurgical Oncology, Northwestern Memorial
Hospital, Chicago, IL for technical review.
To learn more about American Brain Tumor Association, contact
the office at 847-827-9910, or the Patient and Family Line: (800)
886-2282, or by email: firstname.lastname@example.org.